Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial respiratory chain which is the cell power supply. CoQ10 serves as a physiological electron (e-) shuttle from complexes I and II to complex III, as well as a potent antioxidant. Neurons are characterized by high rates of metabolic activity and need to respond promptly to activity-dependent fluctuations in bioenergetic demand. Consequently, it is not surprising that mitochondrial alterations can promote neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. In several neurological disorders, dysfunction of the respiratory chain leads to reduced ATP levels and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. CoQ10 supplementation has been widely used to treat aging, stroke, neuromuscular diseases, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Here we discuss a large number of preclinical and clinical trials for CoQ10. The mechanisms underlying the disease-modifying effects of CoQ10 are the principle subject of the current integrative review. The rational applications as a therapeutic agent in neurological disorders are discussed.
Reference: Salama M, Yuan TF, Machado S, Murillo-Rodríguez E, Vega JA, Menéndez-González M, Nardi AE, Arias-Carrión O. Co-Enzyme Q10 to Treat Neurological Disorders: Basic Mechanisms, Clinical Outcomes, and Future Research Direction. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 (Abstract)